• 14 June 2024

Inside Pakistan’s Economic Turmoil: A Comprehensive Analysis

Jul 24, 2023

Pakistan, a nation renowned for its extensive history and rich culture, has recently experienced serious economic difficulties. The nation’s economic unrest has attracted the interest of international markets and politicians, elevating it to the status of a serious matter of concern. Understanding the issue’ underlying roots, ramifications, and viable solutions becomes crucial as it develops. In this article, we examine the many elements of Pakistan’s economic unrest, illuminating the causes of the problem and examining the wide-ranging effects it has on the country and abroad. Join us as we explore the complexities of Pakistan’s economic turmoil and receive important insights into the initiatives being taken to address them.

 Inside Pakistan’s Economic Turmoil: A Comprehensive Analysis

Pakistan has experienced recurring economic crises due to various factors, including fiscal mismanagement, a high budget deficit, low tax collection, political instability, and external economic shocks. Some of the key issues contributing to the economic challenges in Pakistan include:

Fiscal Deficit

The country has been struggling with a significant fiscal deficit, where government expenditures exceed revenue collection. This imbalance puts pressure on borrowing, leading to increased debt levels.

Low Tax Collection

Pakistan’s tax-to-GDP ratio has been historically low, leading to a limited revenue base for the government. This hampers its ability to invest in infrastructure and social development projects.

External Debt

Pakistan has a substantial external debt burden, which can become challenging to manage during times of economic stress, as the country needs to service its debt obligations.

Energy Crisis

Pakistan has experienced energy shortages and rising energy prices, leading to increased production costs for businesses and impacting economic growth.

Political Instability

Frequent changes in political leadership and governance issues have affected policy continuity and investor confidence.


High inflation rates have eroded the purchasing power of the population and have made it difficult for the government to control prices.

Balance of Payments Crisis

Pakistan has often faced imbalances in its trade and current account, leading to foreign exchange reserves depletion and currency depreciation.

External Imbalances

Pakistan has faced persistent trade deficits and current account deficits, which put pressure on its foreign exchange reserves and contribute to external debt accumulation.

Structural Issues

Pakistan faces deep-rooted structural issues in its economy, including a low tax-to-GDP ratio, inefficient tax collection mechanisms, and a large informal economy, which limits the government’s revenue generation capacity.

Demographic Pressures

Growing population puts additional strain on resources and public services, making it challenging to achieve inclusive economic growth.

Pakistan's Economy
⦁ Late 1970s and 1980s:

During this period, Pakistan faced its first major economic crisis due to mismanagement, increasing fiscal deficit, and rising external debt.
In 1988, Pakistan entered into an International Monetary Fund (IMF) bailout program to address the economic challenges.
Late 1990s:
In the late 1990s, Pakistan faced another severe economic crisis characterized by high inflation, fiscal deficits, and mounting external debt.
In 1999, Pakistan once again turned to the IMF for financial assistance.
Pakistan’s economy faced a balance of payments crisis, a fiscal deficit, and a rising energy crisis.
In 2008, the country sought a bailout package from the IMF to stabilize its economy.
The government of Pakistan faced economic challenges, including increasing public debt and trade deficits.
In 2013, Pakistan requested a loan from the IMF to tackle its economic problems.
In 2018, Pakistan experienced a severe balance of payments crisis, necessitating urgent financial assistance. Pakistan secured a bailout package of US$6 billion from the IMF in 2019 to address its economic crisis.
As of my last update in September 2021, Pakistan was still grappling with economic challenges, including a fiscal deficit, low foreign reserves, and external debt obligations.
The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the economic situation, leading to reduced economic activity and fiscal pressures.

Record Inflation and Economic Crisis:

⦁ Pakistan’s economy is grappling with a severe economic crisis, reflected in a record inflation rate of 38%.
⦁ The government has implemented urgent measures to avoid default amid the challenges posed by a depreciating currency and mounting external deficits.
Contraction of the Industrial Sector:
⦁ The industrial sector, a crucial driver of Pakistan’s economy, has faced a significant setback, contracting by nearly 3% during the current financial year.
⦁ This decline in industrial output exacerbates the economic hardships faced by the nation’s population.
Unemployment Woes:
⦁ Unemployment rates are unofficially estimated at 11-12%, compounding the economic challenges faced by Pakistan.
⦁ The lack of job opportunities adds to the financial strain experienced by the citizens.

 Surge in Irregular Migration:
⦁ The economic crisis has driven a surge in irregular migration from Pakistan towards Europe.
  • Frontex reports 12% rise in irregular migrant detections at EU borders, with notable Pakistani presence.
Tragic Incidents in Migration:

⦁Perilous Mediterranean crossing via Libya causes tragic boat disasters, claiming many lives..
⦁ The desperate quest for better prospects abroad has put many Pakistani lives at risk.
Impact of Soaring Inflation:
⦁ Soaring inflation hits purchasing power; consumer price index records a historic 35%.
⦁Food shortages worsen due to smuggling; essential items like flour hoarded and smuggled across Afghan border for profit.

Tides of Turmoil: Unraveling Pakistan’s Economic Odyssey

 1: Currency Volatility
In October 2022, hope soared as the Rupee showed a remarkable appreciation, but by February 2023, it plummeted into uncertainty. Moreover, the gripping saga is shaped by the ripple effects of fixed exchange rates and international tensions.

 2: Climate Change and Economic Loss
Moreover, immerse yourself in the aftermath of catastrophic floods and the lingering impact of COVID-19. Additionally, the World Bank’s revised growth projections emphasize the nation’s generally precarious economic situation.

 3: Deep in China’s Debt
Additionally, uncover the truth behind Pakistan’s generally heavy reliance on Chinese loans, laden with opaque conditionalities and high-interest rates. With instances of looming risks, the nation faces shadows on the horizon, concerning potential debt defaulting.

 4: Urgent Need for Fiscal Reforms and International Support
Moreover, as IMF bailout talks hang in the balance, the economic situation pushes citizens to the brink. Additionally, with a clarion call for fiscal reforms and international support, Pakistan endeavors to navigate through stormy waters.

Terror’s Toll: Pakistan’s Economic Turmoil

Interconnected Challenges

Moreover, the interplay between Pakistan’s economic crisis and terrorism generally presents significant challenges to the nation’s stability and growth. Additionally, these interconnected issues further complicate the situation.

Investor Confidence

Moreover, persistent terrorist activities discourage foreign investors, hindering economic growth and causing a drop in foreign direct investment.

Impact on Tourism

Additionally, terrorism tarnishes Pakistan’s global image, deters tourists, and hampers the tourism industry, a key revenue source.

Trade Disruptions

Furthermore, terrorist attacks’ security concerns strain trade relations, disrupt trade routes, and raise costs for exporters.

Military Spending

Combatting terrorism diverts resources to defense and security, impacting sectors like education and healthcare, hindering overall economic development.

Trade and Financial Sanctions

Moreover, ties with terrorist groups attract global scrutiny, trade sanctions, and financial restrictions, hindering economic growth prospects.

Brain Drain

Additionally, security concerns trigger a brain drain, as skilled professionals seek better opportunities abroad, impeding economic growth and innovation.

Inequality and Poverty

Furthermore, terrorism exacerbates income inequality and poverty, disproportionately impacting vulnerable populations susceptible to extremist ideologies.

Reduced Government Revenue
  • Additionally, economic disruptions from terrorism decrease government revenue, constraining investment in social welfare programs and essential services.
  • Furthermore, to surmount the economic crisis, Pakistan should prioritize effective counterterrorism measures to enhance security, restore investor confidence, and foster economic stability. Simultaneously, implementing inclusive economic policies, investing in education and infrastructure are vital to tackle root causes, ensuring long-term economic development and stability.
Image showing a file photo of poor households as a effect of Pakistan's Economic Turmoil.


Moreover, Pakistan’s Economic Turmoil comes with a severe economic crisis, with challenges like fiscal deficits, low tax collection, and political instability. Additionally, the country’s economic woes have far-reaching consequences. Generally, they impact its citizens’ purchasing power, and moreover, they lead to a surge in irregular migration, as exemplified in recent instances. Structural issues, fiscal mismanagement, and external imbalances further exacerbate the turmoil, making the path to stability uncertain.

Also, read https://thelogicalpie.com/beyond-borders-the-profound-global-impact-of-the-russia-ukraine-conflict/politics

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